Well, at the end of the exploration it was time for us to get back to the pier where the tiny boat was waiting for us.
In winter the fjord is frozen and you can venture far inside with sleds. But it’s freezing cold, there is nobody living there but seals and bears, there is no food and no water: you can’t venture very far away. In summer – with the thaw – navigation becomes possible in the widest part of the fjord, but the cabotage is still very difficult because of the great number of iceberg of all sizes adrift in a relatively small space. Only small ships and boats such as ours can have the ability to manoeuvre necessary to venture into these waters. And it takes a sailor with all your senses to steep. And who better than a Inuq as Agloolik, our captain? He’s accustomed to use his instincts to locate prey to hunt and to avoid all the dangers of the hostile environment in which he lives. Our sailor sails at full throttle, zigzagging between these mountains of ice, brushing often, finding the way in the maze of icebergs and fog where you can not see the open sea and you do not see the coast.
We are at the southern edge of the “Land of King Christian IX” in the territory of the second largest municipality in the world: Sermersooq.
And if the name does not tell you anything you are doubly justified, since you probably do not even know the names of the towns that are combined to create this kind of monster: Ammassalik, Ivittuut, Paamiut, Nuuk, Ittoqqortoormiit. In 2009 came into force in Greenland an administrative reform that reduced the number of municipalities merging them into new administrative units.
Semersooq has an area of 531.900 km2, is greater than Spain. Nuuk – the capital of Greenland, on the west coast, facing Canada – and Tasiilaq on the Eastern coast, facing Iceland, are now part of the same municipality. Between the two towns there are no roads, but seven hundred kilometers of ice sheet; it takes two hours to fly from a place to another: the first municipal flight of the world!
Sermilik Fjord collects the flow of ten glaciers, all terminal tongues of the Inlandsis, the endless desert of ice covering over the eighty per cent of the surface of Greenland. One of these glaciers is Helheim, kept under close observation by scientists because it started to retreat quickly and at an increasing speeds: relatively stable until the end of the twentieth century, in recent years the face of the glacier has retreated by more than seven kilometers, scrolling back at a speed of about 35 meters per day.
The melting of the glacier increases the production of iceberg, that end up all in the Sermilik fjord. But it also decreases the burden on the earth’s crust. The volume of ice resting on Greenland is immense and its weight caused a lowering of the island, which literally sunk in the earth’s crust; but if the ice starts to melt it will happen as if we remove weight from a raft floating on water: its edge will rise. The consequences are earthquakes and tsunami.
In winter 2003 a tsunami struck the bottom of the Sermilik fjord, there where it ends into the immense glacial tongue of the Midgard glacier; earthquake and waves caused the split of the tongue of the glacier, which flowed into the sea, causing a second tsunami and uncovering – for the first time in thousands of years – the bottom of the valley. But the place is so remote and inaccessible that even the Inuit didn’t realize what had happened. Midgard glacier – in fact – is one of the few still unexplored places of the Earth. His terminal tongue is practically unattainable from the ground or from the sea: the huge chunks of ice that continuously detach from the glacier and fall into the water create big waves and can easily destroy a large ship.
But we are in the time of GPS and satellites, and from satellite photos the scientists realized what happened before the glacier covered again that stretch of the valley.
We go up the fjord for about thirty kilometres between white, blue, green, brown (yes, there’s also the dirty ice) iceberg, until we get to Tiniteqilaaq, a village of 153 inhabitants who live essentially of hunting and fishing: seals, polar bears, salmons.
The village lies on a rocky promontory protected by the Sarpaq island and the port is opened on the Ikâsartivaq fjord, that in summer is ice free and thus allows easier and safer navigation.
This is the final destination of the young couple who travelled with us; now they collects their luggage, greets and leave the boat, walking, with an incongruous trolley, along the steep sandy road that climbs to the top of the hill, flanked by the typical colourful wooden houses: but here the paint a renovation. Other houses are scattered along the rocky coast and around the open space that serves as a heliport, with a wonderful view over the Sermiklik fjord, the glaciers and the iceberg. From time to time you hear the crash and thump who baptise every new iceberg’s birth.
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